Sunday, 28 September 2014

Progress in materials science New work on friction stir welding

Researchers at the University of Huddersfield have collaborated with a colleague at a leading Chinese university to produce a detailed appraisal of a complex new welding technique that could be increasingly valuable to modern industry.

Professor Andrew Ball (pictured below) and his colleague Dr Fengshou Gu, of the University of Huddersfield's Centre for Efficiency and Performance Engineering, teamed up with Professor Xiaocong He of Kunming University of Science and Technology's (KUST) Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre in order to investigate the technique known as Friction Stir Welding (FSW).

Professor Andrew Bal "The University of Huddersfield and Kunming University of Science and Technology have worked very closely together for many years now, and this important publication is one example of the benefits of such international collaboration," said Professor Ball. Professor He is a Visiting Professor at the University of Huddersfield and makes regular visits. Professor Ball and Dr Gu reciprocate with visits to KUST, the next being planned for Spring 2015.





Further research:

Friction Stir Welding is a technique invented in the UK in 1991 that has proved to be an effective means of joining materials that are otherwise hard to weld and for joining plates with different thicknesses or made from different materials. Advanced new technologies, such as FSW, are especially important in modern manufacturing, where there is an increasing need to design lightweight structures and to develop ways of joining them. Professor He, Professor Ball and Dr Gu carried out the research into FSW over a period of several years, receiving financial backing from the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Special Program of the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology. They have now issued their findings in a 66-page article published by the leading international journal Progress in Materials Science. Dr Fengshou G " Progress in Materials Science has an Impact Factor in excess of 25, which is very high for most fields, including engineering. I'm delighted that our work has been published in this prestigious and highly-weighted journal," said Dr Gu.

The article reviews the latest developments in the numerical analysis of friction stir welding processes, the microstructures of friction stir welded joints and the properties of friction stir welded structures.

The authors conclude that FSW can be used successfully to join difficult-to-weld materials, but that the technique and scientific understanding of it is still at an early stage in its development. "So far, the development of the FSW process for each new application has remained largely empirical. Scientific, knowledge-based numerical studies are of significant help in understanding the FSW process," they write. Many challenges remain in the development and analysis of FSW, they conclude, adding that the digest that they have presented in the Progress in Materials Science article is intended to provide the basis for further research.

Perfect explanation of Anti-lock braking system (ABS )


Japanese railway offers taste of 500kph maglev ride to selected audience

Central Japan Railway Company recently offered select members of the public and press a ride on the driverless Lo series maglev train it is developing—riders got to experience land-speed travel at 500kph for a few moments on a 42.8-kilometer Yamanashi maglev test track, between the cities of Uenohara and Fuefuki. The train is to be part of a massive project undertaken by the railroad to carry passengers between Tokyo and Nagoya in just forty minutes —currently it takes a little under two hours.

Maglev trains ride on air of course, held above the track by magnets. Doing so reduces friction making the trains more efficient, and presumably, faster. Such trains need a boost to get moving that fast, and the new train in Japan is no different, it relies on what its makers call L-Zero—a propulsion system that boosts the train from zero to 160kph in a little under a minute. The magnets then take over, pushing the train ever faster until reaching 500kph.



Members of the media on the train reported a smooth ride—just a little jostling of the water in a cup during the highest speeds—though there was a noticeable bump when the train slowed, dropping down onto the tracks. They also reported that the noise inside the train when traveling at high speed was similar to riding in a jet airplane—other members of the press watched the demonstration of the train from an on-looker perspective at several points along the track, mostly to gauge how loud it would be. They report that the train is quieter than conventional trains and less obtrusive, presumably because it approaches and passes much more quickly than other trains.

The new train isn't the fastest maglev in the world, that record (574.4kph) belongs to a test train in France, but it will be the fastest running in Japan—the current speed champ is the Hayabusa shinkansen—it's currently carrying passages at speeds of up to 320kph. The new train will also be one of the most ambitious maglev rail projects in any country. In order to run a train that fast, the ground must be reasonably flat and straight, which means the railroad must cut through some mountains to allow for laying track—that's why the train isn't scheduled for service until 2027.

Physicists design zero-friction quantum engine

Detail —In real physical processes, some energy is always lost any time work is produced. The lost energy almost always occurs due to friction, especially in processes that involve mechanical motion. 


But in a new study, physicists have designed an engine that operates with zero friction while still generating power by taking advantage of some quantum shortcuts. The laws of thermodynamics successfully describe the concepts of work and heat in a wide variety of systems, ranging from refrigerators to black holes, as long as the systems are macroscopic. But for quantum technologies on the micro- and nano-scale, quantum fluctuations that are insignificant on large scales start to become prominent. As previous research as shown, the large quantum effects call for a complete reformulation of the thermodynamics laws.

In the new paper, the physicists have shown one example of a quantum engine that is "super-adiabatic." That is, the engine uses quantum shortcuts to achieve a state that is usually achieved only by slow adiabatic processes. This engine can achieve a state that is fully frictionless; in other words, the engine reaches its maximum efficiency, while still generating some power.

MEET STRATI: The First 3D printed operational car in the world

This is a car that is made almost entirely out of plastic. The Strati took 44 hours to make, and it's completely driveable. It's lighter and, if you believe its creators, also stronger than its metal counterparts. And it just might be the future of automotive technology everywhere.


Local Motors , the Phoenix-based 3D-printing company that built the car with help from Oak Ridge National Lab and the manufacturing company SABIC, says it's the first to 3D print both a body and chassis together. Other models, such as the Urbee , also use 3D-printed parts, but with a more traditionally manufactured frame.

Everything in the Strati that could be made as part of a single piece of plastic, was. This isn't your standard milk jug plastic, however. It's been mixed with carbon fibers for extra strength. Although plastic might seem like an unusual choice for a car, the American Chemistry Council's Steve Russell says it's become an increasingly common component in vehicles. "Carbon fiber reinforced plastics are 50 percent lighter than steel, and 30 percent lighter than aluminum," says Russell, "but it has 12 times higher energy absorption." That means big bonuses for safety and fuel efficiency, which has encouraged car manufacturers to make more and more of their vehicles out of the stuff. Today, carbon-fiber polymers may account for as much as 50 percent of a car's volume (while contributing to only 10 percent of its weight). It's also helped car makers to comply with rising federal emissions standards.

A GOOD NEWS FOR ALL MECHANICAL ENGINEERS WHO ARE SEEKING AN OPPORTUNITY OF PRACTICAL LEARNING

You can't learn about current industrial technologies from your text-books and that's why SAEINDIA Club CEG Anna University is inviting mechanical engineers to one of the most prestigious program being conducted across India, where their very own Anna University, CEG campus has been selected one of the nodal center for Southern Region. The program envisage about spreading Industrial Knowledge about Development of MotorBike and make them aware of its complete technology from Designing to part development, analysis, Modification and more with complete De Assembling of bike with hands on practical. The Program details are given below with complete hands on Practical as well as the collaborative partners, which have made the event as Asia's Largest Campaign for Automobile and
Advance Technology.

An Industry Academia Partnership Program

"Part of Garage-One 2007-2014"

by Metawing Technologies in association with:

SAE Collegiate Club CEG (College of Engineering , Guindy, Anna University), AIESEC IIT Delhi, CII, GOM Germany, Wikipedia, CIS India, APM Technologies, SGT-International, Rapidform Korea and SAEINDIA Club of College of Engineering, Guindy(Anna University) as the Nodal center for Southern India.

• Dates: 29th September-1st October 2014
• Place: Vivekanand Auditorium CEG, Anna University Main Campus
• Fee: 1700/- (Inclusive of kit and Certification from above said certifying bodies)

Beauty


New wearable robotic exoskeleton gives you superhuman powers

Engineers and roboticists in the US have developed a ’smart’ robotic suit made from lightweight, flexible materials that can enhance the movements ofeveryone from soldiers and firefighters to hiking enthusiasts and the elderly.


A team of researchers at Harvard University have developed a prototype robotic exoskeleton, otherwise know as a ’smart suit’. Made from soft materials and worn from the waist down, the device has been designed to gradually assist the wearer in the movements they’re making, supplementing their natural power by up to 20 percent.

Saturday, 27 September 2014

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Interesting Facts About Italy

The name Italy comes from the word italia, meaning “calf land,” perhaps because the bull was a symbol of the Southern Italian tribes.

Italy is approximately 116,400 square miles (including Sicily and Sardinia), which is slightly larger than Arizona.

Italy is one of the most crowded nations in Europe.a Its population is estimated to reach 58,126,212 by July 2009. The population of United States is estimated to reach 307,212,123 by that same date.

The capital of Italy is Rome (also known as the Eternal City) and is almost 3,000 years old. It has been the capital since 1871 and is home to the Dome of St. Peter's, the Sistine Chapel, the Coliseum, and the famous Trevi Fountain.

The official name of Italy is the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana).

Italy is said to have more masterpieces per square mile than any other country in the world.

Almost four-fifths of Italy is either mountainous or hilly.

In 2007, a dog named Rocco discovered a truffle in Tuscany that weighed 3.3 pounds. It sold at auction for $333,000 (USD), a world record for a truffle.

The Italian wolf is Italy’s unofficial national animal and plays a large role in the legend of the founding of Rome.

The author of “Pinocchio” (“pine nut”), Carlo Collodi (1826-1890), was Italian.

When McDonald's opened in 1986 in Rome, food purists outside the restaurant gave away free spaghetti to remind people of their culinary heritage.

Italians created parmesan, provolone, mozzarella, and many other cheeses

Parmesan cheese originated in the area around Parma, Italy. Italians also created many other cheeses, including gorgonzola, mozzarella, provolone, and ricotta. No one knows when the pizza was invented, but the people of Naples made it popular.

The University of Rome is one of the world’s oldest universities and was founded by the Catholic Church in A.D. 1303. Often called La Sapienza (“knowledge”), the University of Rome is also Europe’s largest university with 150,000 students.

There are two independent states within Italy: the Republic of San Marino (25 square miles) and the Vatican City (just 108.7 acres).




Italy’s San Marino is the world’s oldest republic (A.D. 301), has fewer than 30,000 citizens, and holds the world’s oldest continuous constitution. Its citizens are called the Sammarinese.

Vatican City is the only nation in the world that can lock its own gates at night. It has its own phone company, radio, T.V. stations, money, and stamps. It even has its own army, the historic Swiss Guard.

Most of Italy’s natural flora and fauna has disappeared due to centuries of cultivation. Most of its natural wildlife has also disappeared due to over-hunting.

Italians suffer more earthquakes than any other Europeans. In 1693, an estimated 100,000 people died in an earthquake in Sicily. The most deadly recent quake in Italy occurred in Naples in 1980, killing 3,000 people.

No other country in Europe has as many volcanoes as Italy. This is because the Italian peninsula stands on a fault line. Three major volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, and Vesuvius) have erupted in the last hundred years.

By the year 2000 B.C., Italic tribes (Oscans, Umbrians, Latins) had established themselves in Italy. They were followed by the Etruscans in 800 B.C. and the Greeks, who established colonies known as Magna Graeca in southern Italy (present-day Apulia). Rome was founded in 753 B.C., and soon thereafter the Romans began conquering the peninsula.



At its height in A.D. 117, the Roman Empire stretched from Portugal in the West to Syria in the east, and from Britain in the North to the North African deserts across the Mediterranean. It covered 2.3 million miles (two-thirds the size of the U.S.) and had a population of 120 million people. During the Middle Ages, Rome had perhaps no more than 13,000 residents.


Like most of Europe, Italy was ravaged in the middle of the fourteenth century by the Black Death, a combination of plagues (chiefly the bubonic) that were carried to Genoa by Italian merchants returning from the Middle East. The recovery stimulated growth and helped spawn humanism and the Renaissance.

Two Italians in particular contributed to the eighteenth-century's Enlightenment: Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), whose essays on Crime and Punishment led to broad reforms in the treatment of prisoners and criminals, and Giambattista Vico (1668-1774), a philosopher, rhetorician, and historian who is often thought to have ushered in a modern philosophy of history.

From 1861 to 1985, more than 26 million people left Italy to seek a better life

From 1861 to 1985, more than 26 million people left Italy (mostly from the overcrowded south) to seek a better life. Only one in four came home again.

The highest peak in Europe is in Italy. Monte Bianco (White Mountain) is 15,771 feet high and is part of the Alps.

Though Italy’s economy lagged behind the rest of Europe during the first half of the twentieth century, currently it is the world’s seventh largest economy.

In northern Italy, last names tend to end in “i”, while those from the south often end in “o.” The most common Italian surname is Russo.

Italian is a Romance language descended from Vulgar Latin, the dialect spoken by the people living during the last years of the Roman Empire. Italian has more Latin words than any other Romance languages, and its grammatical system remains similar to Latin. Latin is still the official language of the Vatican City in Rome.

In the 1930s and 40s, Italian fascist Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) tried to eliminate foreign words from Italian. In soccer, “goal” became “meta” and Donald Duck became “Paperino.” Mickey Mouse became “Topolino” and Goofy became “Pippo.” While the ban was not permanent, the Italian names remain common.

Over 50 million tourists a year visit Italy. Tourism is vital to Italy’s economy and provides nearly 63% of Italy’s national income.




Italian Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simon (1475-1564) was once thought to have painted in somber shades, but after his frescos on the Sistine Chapel were cleaned, it was discovered that he actually painted in bright colors, such as purples, greens, and pinks. Centuries of dirt and smoke from candles had toned down the bright colors. Some art historians argued that the restorers went too far in their cleaning efforts and removed the dark shadows Michelangelo intended.

In 2008, Italian experts proposed insulating Michelangelo’s David from the vibrations of tourist footsteps to prevent the marble from cracking.

Known as the “Three Fountains,” Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374), and Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) are arguably the three most famous Italian authors of all time. Dante’s Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) had tremendous influence on Italian literature, and he is considered the father of the Italian language.

The pre-dinner passeggiata (evening stroll) is one of Italy’s most enduring leisure activities where Italians stroll about the streets to see and be seen.

When European Jews were being persecuted during WWII, it was not unusual for some Jews to hide in Italy’s ancient catacombs.

The Shroud of Turin is an ancient piece of linen cloth believed to bear the faint imprint of a male body, perhaps Jesus Christ after he was killed. It has been in the Turin’s San Giovanni Cathedral for at least 420 years. While scientists have determined the shroud was made no earlier than the 1200s, others continue to debate when and how the shroud was created.

Begun in 1560 for Cosimo l de’ Medici, the Uffizi Gallery in Florence is one of the oldest museums in the world and contains famous works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, and da Vinci.
Approximately 85% of Italians are Roman Catholics, with Protestants, Jews, and a growing Muslim community making up the minority.

Italian soccer fans are called tifosi, meaning ”carriers of typhus”

Soccer is Italy’s most popular sport, and the famous San Siro Stadium in Milan holds 85,000 people. Italy has won the World Cup four times (1934, 1938, 1982, and 2006), making the country’s team second only to Brazil's in number of wins.

Soccer was introduced to Italians in the late 1800s by the British, but it was not until the 1930s under Mussolini that the sport took off on an international level.

Soccer fans in Italy are called tifosi, meaning “carriers of typhus.” Italian soccer fans are known for their rowdy behavior and lack of inhibition.

In 1454, a real human chess game took place in Marostica, Italy. Rather than fight a bloody duel, the winner of the chess game would win the hand of a beautiful girl. To commemorate the event, each September in even-numbered years, the town’s main piazza becomes a life-sized chess board.

Italians claim to have taught the rest of Europe how to cook. Italy is responsible for introducing the world to ice cream (via the Chinese), coffee, and fruit pies. In addition to Belgium and France, Italy also claims to have made the first French fries. The first Italian cookbook was written in 1474 by Bartolomeo Sicci.

Italy has hosted the Olympic Games three times. The 1956 Winter Games were held at Cortina d’Ampezzo, Zuel, and the Dolomite Alps. The 1960 Summer Olympics were held in Rome. And Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics.

Italy’s birthrate is the second lowest in the Western world. Both political and church leaders have expressed concern and have offered rewards to couples who have more than one child.

The biggest holiday in Italy is Christmas. Many people celebrate Christmas Eve with a huge feast, often featuring seafood. The Christmas season lasts until Epiphany, January 6, the date when the Three Wise Men are said to have reached Jesus’ manger.

Italy is among the world’s leaders of the fashion industry. In the 1950s, Italian designers such as Nino Cerruti and Valentino led the world in creating stylish fashions. Additionally, Armani, Versace, Gucci, and Prada have become internationally recognized. Italy is also known for fine sports cars, such as the Ferrari and Lamborghini.

The first violin appeared in Italy in the 1500s, probably from the workshop of Andrea Amati (1505-1578) in Cremona. The city later became the home of Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737), the most famous of violin-makers.

The world’s longest land tunnel is the Lötschberg Base Tunnel, which proves a 22-mile railway link between Switzerland and Italy.

Influenced in part by the French flag, the Italian flag has evolved over several hundred years. The flag is vertically divided into three equal sections of green, white, and red, representing hope, faith, and charity. Another interpretation is that the green represents the Italian landscape, white represents the snow-capped Alps, and red represents the bloodshed that brought about the independence of Italy.

Italy was one of the founders of the EU and is a member of the Group of Eight (G8), a forum for eight of the world’s most powerful nations.

Venice, Italy, is one of the world's most beautiful and unusual cities. It was founded over 1,400 years ago on a collection of muddy islands in a wide and shallow lagoon. It has been sinking into the mud for centuries and is plagued by floods.
The Sardinian islands are famous for their “witches” who make health potions for local people. The “witches” are usually women and they use a secret language that they pass on to their daughters.a

A part of northern Italy called Val Camonica contains about 350,000 petroglyphs that were created nearly 10,000 years ago.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was an Italian-born scientist. When he argued that the Earth revolved around the Sun, the Catholic Church imprisoned Galileo in his own house. The Church issued a formal apology in 1992.

Italian citizens who are at least 18 years old can vote for the lower house in the parliament, the Chamber of Deputies. Citizens who are at least 25 years old can vote for the 315 members of the upper house, the Senate.

Italy’s long coastline and developed economy draws many illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and Africa. Additionally, Latin American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroine, and organized crime have all found an active market in Italy.

Many single Italian children live at home until their 30s, even if they have a job. The Italian family stands at the heart of Italian society.


The world’s first operas were composed in Italy at the end of the sixteenth century. Opera reached the height of popularity in the nineteenth century, when the works of Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), and Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) became hugely popular. The late tenor Luciano Pavarotti (1935-2007) is a national celebrity, and Claudio Monteverdi (c. 1567-1643) is regarded as the father of the modern opera.

The Tower of Pisa is famous for leaning over 14 feet from the perpendicular

The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built in 1173 and began to lean soon after, probably due to a poorly laid foundation. During WWII, the Nazi’s used it as a watch tower. After reconstruction efforts in 2008, engineers declared the tower would be stable for at least another 200 years.a

Interesting Facts About Spain

Many different groups of people have settled in Spain throughout history, including Iberians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Visigoths, Celts, Basques, and the Moors (Muslims who came from North Africa).

The quill pen is thought to have originated in Spain about 1,400 years ago.

The most enduring contribution of Spain to the world is its language, which was imported to the Americas with the expansion of the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. Now, more than 400 million people speak Spanish in 22 countries, including 35 million who speak it in the United States.

Since the Pyrenees Mountains were such a significant barrier in the north, and Spain is just 9 miles from Morocco in the south, Spain shares much of its early history with Africa.c
The official name of Spain is the Kingdom of Spain.

The Iberian Peninsula was one of several refuges during the last ice age, so it was largely from Spain that northern Europe was repopulated after the ice age ended.

Famous Spaniards include Seneca, Hadrian, Antonio Banderas, Penelope Cruz, Salvador Dalí, El Greco, Pablo Picasso, Francisco de Goya, Jose Carreras, and Plácido Domingo.




visit Spain Spain is one of the most visited countries in the world

In 2006, 58 million tourists visited Spain and its islands. Foreign tourists spent $51 billion in 2006. Spain is second most visited country in the world after France.

Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (1499-1543) discovered California.

In 1603, Spanish sailor Gabriel de Castilla (1577-1620) became the first the man ever to see Antarctica.

Spanish sailor Juan Sebastián Elcano (1476-1526) was the first man to circumnavigate the world.

Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475-1519) was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.

The first novel, Tirant lo Blanc (1490), was written by Spanish author Joanot Martorell (1413-1468). Translated as Tirant the White, it played an important role in the development of the Western novel.

The Phoenicians who entered Spain in the 8th century B.C. called the peninsula Span or “the hidden land.”

The official language of Spain is Castilian Spanish (74%), though Catalan (17%) Galician (7%), and Basque (2%) are also spoken.

Tomás de Torquemada (1420-1498) was the first Grand Inquisitor in the Spanish Inquisition. His name has been associated with the Inquisition’s horror, fanaticism, and bigotry.

Ironically, he was a descendent of a converso, or someone who had converted to Christianly from Judaism or Islam. In 1832, his tomb was raided and his bones were stolen and burned.

During the last ice age, most of Europe was covered in glaciers, but most of Spain was far enough south to escape the ice. Consequently, plants that were wiped out across Europe survived in Spain. Europe as a whole has 9,000 plant species; there are over 8,000 plant species in Spain alone, with 2,000 of them being unique to the country.

Spanish inventor Manuel Jalón Corominas (1925-2011) invented the mop in 1956.

Spanish sailor and engineer Isaac Peral (1851-1895) designed the first fully operative military submarine.

Spanish surgeon and scientist Miguel Servet (1511-1553) was the first European to describe pulmonary circulation.

Interesting Dubai Fun Facts

Burj Khalifa, the tallest man-made structure in the world, is in Dubai, UAE. It also holds the world records for most floors in a building (163), world's highest restaurant (At.mosphere restaurant on the 122nd floor), world's highest nightclub (on its 144th floor) and world's longest elevator travel distance (504m). The Fountain at the Burj Khalifa is the most powerful and biggest automated fountain in the world. It can shoot water 130 metres high — as high as a 50-storey building

Dubai Fun facts


City of Dubai is the largest city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

In terms of population, the Emirates of Dubai and Abu Dhabi have two-thirds of the population of the country. The other five emirates together account for about one-third of the UAE population.


Interesting Dubai facts



UAE's flag carrier Emirates Airline is the world’s largest airline for international traffic

The Dubai Metro system is the longest automated rail network in the world. Its 87 trains run without drivers. It was opened at 9 pm on 09/09/09 by HH Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum



The most luxurious hotel in the world is in Dubai and it’s called the Burj Al Arab. It bills itself at a 7-star hotel and is build on a man-island just off the coast.



The Dubai World Cup, an annual thoroughbred horse race, is the world's richest horse race. Its string of nine races carry a total prize money of over US$27 million. Its venue, the Meydan Racecourse, has the longest grandstand in the world (1.6 km)


Dubai facts

Dubai Duty Free is the busiest travel retailer in the world, with sales of more than 1.5 billion US Dollars (In a typical year, it sells about 2000 tonnes of chocolates among other things)

Princess Tower in Dubai is the tallest residential building in the world.

The Palm Jumeirah in Dubai is the world’s largest artificial island and is visible from space. It added 520 km of shoreline to the Dubai.

The Dubai Mall is the world's largest shopping mall in terms of total area
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